Human papillomavirus vaccination Routine vaccination Females through age 26 years and males through age 21 years: HPV vaccination complete, no additional dose needed If completed valid vaccination series with any HPV vaccine, no additional doses needed Special situations Immunocompromising conditions including HIV infection through age 26 years: HPV vaccination not recommended until after pregnancy; no intervention needed if vaccinated while pregnant; pregnancy testing not needed before vaccination Influenza vaccination Routine vaccination Persons age 6 months or older: Generally should not be vaccinated Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination Routine vaccination No evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, or rubella: Born before except health care personnel , documentation of receipt of MMR, laboratory evidence of immunity or disease diagnosis of disease without laboratory confirmation is not evidence of immunity Special situations Pregnancy with no evidence of immunity to rubella: MMR contraindicated during pregnancy; after pregnancy before discharge from health care facility , 1 dose MMR Non-pregnant women of childbearing age with no evidence of immunity to rubella:
Chickenpox (Varicella) Vaccine
Also, studies were conducted in Japan which indicated protection for at least 20 years. In these cases, people show very little sign of illness. This has been the case of children who get the vaccine in their early childhood and later have contact with children with chickenpox. Some of these children may develop a mild chickenpox also known as breakthrough disease. Assessments of duration of immunity are complicated in an environment where natural disease is still common, which typically leads to an overestimation of effectiveness. In the United States, where universal varicella vaccination has been practiced, the majority of children no longer receive exogenous outside boosting, thus, their cell-mediated immunity to VZV varicella zoster virus wanes—necessitating booster chickenpox vaccinations. Persons exposed to the virus after vaccine tend to experience milder cases of chickenpox.
Why vaccinate against chickenpox? The risk of hospitalization and death from chickenpox is increased in adults. Chickenpox may cause complications such as pneumonia or, rarely, an inflammation of the brain encephalitis , both of which can be serious.
Advanced Search Abstract A program of routine varicella vaccination of children 12—18 months of age, begun in the United States in , has been very successful in reducing the incidence of varicella. Varicella-zoster virus VZV , in both wild-type and live attenuated forms, is notable for its ability to produce latent infection of sensory neurons from which it can later reactivate to cause herpes zoster HZ. Therefore, the effects of vaccination on this secondary VZV-related disease are important to consider; in practice, however, such studies are complicated by the typically long delay between acquisition of the virus and its reactivation. Studies of immunocompromised children have shown that vaccination is relatively protective against HZ in this highly vulnerable group. We now present long-term follow-up data on a group of individuals who received varicella vaccine as healthy young adults 10—26 years ago and who have been followed prospectively by means of active surveillance.